The Cultural Revolution is a series of campaigns, initiated by Mao, intended to transform China into a 'truly revolutionary' country and eliminate his rivals in the Party leadership, such as Liu Shaoqi and Deng Xiaoping. Big-character posters are used to denounce people as opponents of the Revolution. Red Guards (pupils and students who swear loyalty to Mao and his Little Red Book) destroy anything that is branded ‘old’ and eliminate people considered ‘rightists’. The campaigns result effectively in a civil war. The country is in chaos, but the posters only show enthusiasm.