"The Internationale" (French: "L'Internationale") has been a standard of the socialist movement since the late nineteenth century. The anthem's lyrics were written in June 1871 by Eugène Pottier (91816-1887), a member of the Paris Commune. In 1888, Pierre De Geyter (1848–1932) set the lyrics to music. From 1912 to 1944, the Internationale was used as an anthem of the Bolshevik Party, the Soviet Russia and the Soviet Union before being replaced with the Hymn of the Soviet Union. It was also used as a national anthem by the Chinese Soviet Republic, Bavarian Soviet Republic, Slovak Soviet Republic, and Hungarian Soviet Republic.
"The Internationale" in Chinese (国际歌, guojige) was translated in 1923 by Qu Qiubai (瞿秋白), a member of the CCP in the late 1920s. His translation transliterated "The Internationale" as Yīngdénàxióngnà'ěr (英德纳雄纳尔). Qu was executed by the Guomindang (Kuomintang) in 1935. Qu's translation did not see widespread use due to it being written in Classical Chinese. The most common version, as well as the anthem of the CCP, was translated from the Russian version in 1923 by the poet Xiao San, a friend of Mao Zedong.